“夸大”和“夸张”,如何用地道英语表达?

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新冠肺炎在国外愈演愈烈

回想当初

西方政府、民众对于病毒的扩散

一度是置之不理的态度

表示夸大了事态的严重性

大家的反应过于夸张

希望各国都能做好疫情防护

携手抗疫

祝福世界人民

今天我们学习一下如何用英文表示表示“夸大、夸张”

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1.Drama queen 喜剧女王(喜欢夸张描述、小题大做、戏精等的人)

Dramatic 戏剧的;戏剧性的

Don't worry, she's just being a drama queen.

不用担心,她只不过是在小题大做罢了。

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2.Exaggerate [ɡzdret] 夸张;夸大;言过其实

to make sth seem larger, better, worse or more important than it really is

He tends to exaggerate the difficulties. 他往往夸大困难。

It goes without exaggeration that ... 毫不夸张地说...


3.Overstate夸大;夸张;言过其实

to say sth in a way that makes it seem more important than it really is

The seriousness of the crime cannot be overstated .

这一罪行的严重性怎么说也不为过。

So a man may overstate what he has to make himself appear more desirable to a woman. 所以一个男人可能夸大他所拥有的东西 , 让自己显得更能让女人动心。


4. Blow ….out of proportion 夸大其词

Proportion [prpn] 部分,份额

Water covers a large proportion of the earth's surface.

水覆盖了地球表面的大部分

The proportion of regular smokers increases with age.

习惯吸烟的人口比重随年龄的增长而上升。

So let us not blow things out of proportion.

因此,我们不应将事情过分夸大。

Don't blow situations out of proportion.

不要把情况夸大了

英语辞格——夸张(Hyperbole)

夸张(Hyperbole, derived from a Greek word meaning “huperbole,” is a figure of speech that involves an exxaggeration of ideas for the sake of emphasis.)是指为了达到某种表达效果的需要,对事物的形象、特征、作用、程度等方面着意夸大或缩小的修辞方式。此手法与汉语种的“夸张”基本相同,即运用远远超越客观事实的说法来渲染、强调事物,以求给读者留下突出的印象。所以它往往注重深切情感的表达,而不注重客观事实的记述。

Comparison:(对比以下两个句子)

一般表达方式

They laughed heartily.

She was scared.

夸张的表达方式

They almost died laughing.

She was scared to death.

实现形式(Forms)

1. 用数词进行夸张

(1)I have got a sea of troubles.

2. 用动词进行夸张

(2)In its wake, budgets cuts and food shortages have hit the new nation of Russia——and prices have shot out of thid world.

3.用形容词和副词进行夸张

(3)Divorce has become a lucrative process, siimple to arrange and easy to forget; and ambitious females can repeat it as often as they please and parlay their winnings to astronomical figures.

4.用比较级或最高级进行夸张

(4)The most effective water power in the world——women's tears.

5. 用介词短语进行夸张

(5)Here was wealth beyond computation, almost beyond imagination.

6.用名词进行夸张

(6)It is a crime to stay inside on such a beautiful day.

7.用否定词进行夸张

(7)Years of hard work, little rest, only a cold room to live in and never, never a moment to rest.

翻译方法(Skills)

夸张与暗喻、借代以及拟人都相互关联,例如a sea of troubles 既是隐喻又是夸张。由于人类对外部客观世界的观察有很多相似之处,英汉语言中的夸张不乏酷似之例,对于这类夸张,英译汉时采用异化就可以了。但是,英语中的有些夸张与特定的历史、地理、文化、传统有关,具有很强的民族性和时代性。此时我们的翻译就要酌情处理,归化与异化并用才能译出较理想的译文来。

(1) I did not cry,I could no. My cees were as hot as freand my very eyes burnt in my

译:我没有哭,我哭不出来。双颊热得火辣辣的,两眼好像冒火。

析:由于英汉语言系统的不同;英汉语言的一些夸张的表达方法并不能完全对应。原文的My cheeks were as hot as fire 可以翻译为“双颊热得如火”,但是my very eyes burnt in my head却不能翻泽为“眼睛在头上燃烧”,因为“眼睛燃烧”并不符合汉语的语言习惯,应该做些调整,采用归化的方法、其结果才符合汉语语言习惯。

(2)He run down the avenue, making a noise like ten horses at gallop.

译:他沿街跑下去,喧闹如万马奔腾。

析:英汉民族都有共同的数量概念,但是英语中没有“万”这一数量单位,汉语强调的时候常常说“千万”,所以译文要符合汉语对数的表达方式。

(3)For she was beauitiful——her beauty made the bright world dim, and everything beside seened like the fleeting image of a shade.

译:由于她的美,光明的世界变得暗淡无光;由于她的美,她周围的一切似乎像影子一样稍纵即逝。

析:雪莱的这些诗句与汉语中“沉鱼落雁之姿,闭月羞花之貌”异曲同工,通过夸张,使诗意极浓,形象极美。

夸张在汉语和英语中都是常用的修辞格,用以加强语气,增强语言的感染力,有意夸大或缩小事物的某一方面,从而获得更好的表达效果,翻译时多采用异化法。涉及原语的历史、习俗等文化空缺时,可采用归化与异化相结合的方法。

良药苦口

You always say that you can not learn English well and you do not have the talent of learning English, but I noticed that when you learn English, your eyes fall on the book s while your mind is a million miles away.

你总是说你没有英语学习万面的天分,你学不好英语。但据我观察,每次当你学习英语的时候,眼睛虽然盯在书上,但你的心思却早已飞到了十万八千里之外.

析:这句话中巧妙借用了数词“a million " 将夸张手法运用在了自己的语言里,通过这种方式一针见血地指出学生在英语学习方面存在的严重问题,即思想认识方面存在问题。实际上“a million miles away”不仅仅指的是学生在学习中游离于学习之外、心不在焉的学习状态,更指的是学生在思想认识方面跟学好英语存在的巨大差距。

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