拜登在选民见面会上如是谈中国(内有公号新联系方式)

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中美之间会不会有新的历史机遇,很难预测。我们甚至都不能预测本文是否是本公号的最后一篇文章,希望不会如此。但是世事难料,在9/20日后,如读者无法再阅读到本公号的更新,可以去网易搜索同名的网易号。海外的读者也可以下载Telegram , 然后在手机浏览器中打开链接“https://t.me/joinchat/MvXTABj7X6uQxRjnNxaHmg”,点击“ Join Group”加入“北美新药科普历史网”的读者群。

最近,特朗普和民主党的拜登这两大总统候选人,分别在ABC和CNN举行了一场选民见面会。特朗普在访谈中对中国格外强调,提到“中国”10次。对于目前美国比较狼狈的疫情状况,他有一个简单的答案:“这是中国的错”。

特朗普总统治下的中美关系如何,已经不用我说了,大家都知道。

那么民主党的拜登对中国的态度如何呢?这自然也成了海内外华人注意的焦点。

在拜登的谈话中,中国显然不是重点,仅仅被提及了3次,和特朗普对中国的重点照顾形成了鲜明的对照。不过,我们还是可以管中窥豹地寻找到未来民主党对华思路的一点端倪。

如下是拜登访谈中提到中国片段的原文,翻译和一点点评。

提问大意:(关于司法部长把防疫居家令和奴隶制相提并论)。

拜登:坦白地讲,(这种提法)病态。大家想一想,这是一位司法部长,他把遵循科学的防疫指导,拯救大家生命的居家令和奴隶制相提并论。(在奴隶制里)人类是被用铁链锁住的。

而在当下,你如果不积极防疫你才失掉了自由,失去了你看球赛的自由,失去了送孩子上学的自由,失去了你去医院探视老父亲老母亲的自由,失去了在小区自由自在散步的自由,这都是因为(总统)没有尽到职责。看看皮尤的一个民意调查,俄国的普京,中国的领导人,在世界上都得到了比美国总统更高的信任分。这主要的原因就是防疫表现。防疫失败不但让我们遭受生命的损失,也让美国失去了在世界上的影响力。

COOPER: Do you think that the comments by the Attorney General contribute to people, I mean, encourage people not to wear masks?

BIDEN: Sure, I mean, quite frankly, they're sick. Think about it. Did you ever, ever think any of you, you'd hear an Attorney General say that following the recommendations of the scientific community, to save your and other people's lives is equivalent to slavery. People being put in chains. You lost your freedom because you didn't act. The freedom to go to that ball game, the freedom of your kid to go to school, the freedom to see your mom or dad in the hospital. The freedom just to walk around your neighborhood because of failure to act responsibly. This is -- Anderson. I've been doing this a long time. I never ever, ever thought I would see such a thoroughly totally irresponsible administration. It's just -- it's just -- it's almost -- it's one of the reasons why if you take a look at the Pew Foundation poll, guess what? Russia, Putin, Chinese leader, are trusted by more of the people in the world than the President of the United States of America. And one of the reasons they cite is COVID. The way he has handled COVID. This is not only causing us life loss here. It is causing us to lose our influence in ways that are profound.

提问:你把中国看作对手吗?特朗普总统说你和中国的关系太热络,在国际社会中对他们过于屈从。

COOPER: Do you view China as an opponent? Because the President says you've been too cozy with China, too accepting of them in the international community.

拜登:我不是这样的人。看,(特朗普上任以来)我们的贸易逆差达到了历史上的顶点。世界贸易组织(WTO)刚刚判定特朗普的对中国贸易政策违反了WTO的规定。

(BIDEN: I'm not the guy. Look, China, we now have a larger trade deficit with China than we've ever had with China. And in our Administration, when the World Trade Organization, he keeps going on about, just ruled that his trade policy violated the World Trade Organization, we sued. We went to the World Trade Organization 16 times, 16 times)。

记者:你把中国视为对手吗?

(COOPER: Do you view China as an opponent? )

拜登:我视中国为竞争者。

(BIDEN: I view China as a competitor)

记者:竞争者?

(COOPER: Competitor)

拜登:对,一个强有力的竞争者。所以,我们必须加强和我们亚洲盟友的关系。关于南海,当我访问中国的时候,中国领导人对我说我们应该搞一个空间识别区(防止双方的误判和摩擦)。我和我的国家安全团队在一起把这个要求顶了回去,对方是知道我们强硬立场的。我说:我们不会参与。我们只管飞,我们会尊重国际惯例,你们也必须如此。

(BIDEN:A serious competitor. That's why, I think, we have to strengthen our relationships and our alliances in Asia. That's why we have to, in fact, make - I made it clear, as you may recall, that when I was in China, and chinese leader said to me that they're setting up an air identification zone, I said - I was with the National Security team, I said we're not going to pay attention. It's what he expect me to do, bring it down. I said, "We're just not going to pay attention. We're going to fly right through it. We're going to abide by international norms. That's what we're going to do and insist that they do."

点评:拜登此处的表态是非常不同寻常的。一般来说,美国对外国关系的定位有五个层次:1. 敌人( Adversary/Enemy)2. 对手(Opponent)3. 竞争者(Competitor)4. 合作者(Partner)5. 同盟(Ally)。

特朗普政府显然是把中国定位为敌人的。

而主持本次选民见面会的电视台是CNN,这家媒体是坚决反对特朗普总统的,不可能随总统咄咄逼人的对华宣传起舞,所以本次的主持人提问拜登时用了一个相对弱化的词:对手,而非敌人。引人注目的是,拜登连这个球都没有接,他坚持用了一个更加中性的词:竞争对手(Competitor),这个定位让CNN的主持人甚至有点意外,特别追问了一句,得到了拜登的肯定答复后才作罢。

在上世纪90年代中期,中美关系一度处于蜜月期,当时克林顿的定位是层次4:战略合作者(Strategic Partner)。小布什上台后挥舞鹰派作风,把对华关系降格为“战略竞争者“(Strategic Competitor),让大洋两边的人在多年的中美热络后第一次真正感到一丝凉意,然后就有了2001中美南海撞机,王伟遇难的突发事件。

拜登是政坛常青树,他首次当选联邦参议员的那一年,正是尼克松历史性破冰访华的1972年,之后他又长期担任参议院外交委员会主席,所以拜登对中美关系50年的历史有一个总揽全局的视野。

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拜登在医院宣誓就职(在29岁的时候,他当选联邦参议员,但是也经历了巨大的人生悲剧,妻女在车祸中丧生,照片中病床上是幸存的儿子Beau。2015,Bean 因为脑瘤去世,是拜登第二次经历人生悲剧)

当前的中美关系已和20年前大相径庭,处于自从1972年尼克松访华以来的最低点:美国驻华大使刚刚辞职,而且没有继任者顶上,这就相当于非正式地把两国关系降到了代办级。在这样黑云压城的时刻,拜登的“竞争”说,显示了他如果当选,中美关系也许还可能回归良性竞争。

提问:......我们是生产集装箱底盘的小厂家,目前面临着来自中国大型国营企业的不正当竞争。目前该公司正处于关税处罚之中,但他们找到了规避的办法。请问您作为总统如何处理这个问题?

(HARTMAN: Vice President Biden, Cheetah Chassis is located in Berwick, Pennsylvania, where we produce intermodal container chassis. We're a small family-owned business that is facing unfair trade container chassis imports from, we'll call, a massive state-owned entity in China.

The products are under - currently under Section 301, but the Chinese have found a way to undermine the relief of the tariff. So, as President, how would you address China's unfair trade policies)。

拜登:我会明确地表态,当中方试图使用国家力量来扶植企业,对产品刻意压价,对美国制造业进行(不正当)竞争,这样的机会一去不复返了。

而且,美国政府会优先考虑美国制造,不单单是成品,也包括上游的零部件。

特朗普的做法是错误的。他给大公司减税,然后这些公司外包到海外,然后用低廉价格把成品买回来,这个价格比美国生产的成本价还低。这些公司的总部在美国,但是其产业链却在海外。

我们必须确保“美国制造”,这个口号喊了100年了,我们现在能够也必须做到。

(BIDEN: I would make it clear, just so we did in our Administration, that when they use state - state-owned enterprises, which is what they're doing, state-owned enterprises, to undercut the price that they can charge, to be able to come and compete with American manufacturing, that they in fact would be denied that opportunity.

I would also make it clear that when you, in fact, it's got to be - if any of that is being purchased by any government agency, that it will not - we will not purchase anything that is not made in America, including - including the downriver line of what has to be done, all the parts.

You can't do what he's doing now. You can't do where he's given a tax break to companies that, in fact, go overseas, bring their - and then import the product back into the United States of America, even though their headquarters is here, the chain, though, you go overseas, and they bring it back in cheaper, than you being able to produce it.

And so, I'm going to make sure that it's made in America. I believe and I mean that. We all - we've been talking about this policy for a 100 years. We've never fully done it. We can and must do it now)。

点评:在谈到中美竞争,2年前,特朗普在对自己友好的FOX NEWS电视台不小心说了一句真心话:中国人的好日子过得太长了(They lived too well for too long!)。不愧是真小人,给人一种赤裸裸的感觉。

普通中国人的日子真的是太好吗?

在经济高速发展的背后,我们也看到大批民工长期背井离乡,辛苦劳作,一年回不了两次家,却得不到和他们的付出相符的收入和福利;我们也看到经济发展带来的环境代价,乡镇企业污染区癌症病例激增,城市雾霾的终日不散,疫情封城的一个好处居然是产生了很多大晴天......

特朗普是看中国人生活‘太好”就强行封禁加税的糙快猛风格,而民主党在抑制对手竞争力上采取的是占领道德制高点的方式。比如,他们提出国会应该立法审核美方产品在中国生产基地的环境标准,工人的最低工资,福利待遇,医疗保健等等,如果达不到一定标准,就限制外包,施以税收上的惩罚,等等。

如此一来,中方若要落实美方规定的环境和福利标准,势必大大增加了成本,那么自然无形中提高了美国制造的竞争力;同时,巨大的商业机遇,美国的技术和资金优势,也会诱导中方提高工人的待遇以满足美方法规的要求。这样,经济发展的绝对速度也许受到了影响,但是社会也许会获得一个经济,民生和环境三赢局面。对中美来说,这会是一个双赢的局面。

结语

中美之间不会有新的历史机遇,很难预测。我们甚至都不能预测本文是否是本公号的最后一篇文章,希望不会如此。但是世事难料,在9/20日后,如读者无法再阅读到本公号的更新,可以去网易搜索同名的网易号。海外的读者也可以下载Telegram , 然后在手机浏览器中打开“https://t.me/joinchat/MvXTABj7X6uQxRjnNxaHmg”,点击“ Join Group”加入“北美新药科普历史网”的读者群。

(图片来自网络)

参考资料:

http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/2009/17/se.01.html

https://news.am/eng/news/475477.html

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