幼儿英语启蒙要不要学语法?幼儿英语语法怎么教?

subtitle 传递教育 09-02 11:05 跟贴 37 条

幼儿阶段到底该不该学语法?学什么?怎么学?

相信这些问题一定困扰着不少老师和家长。

孩子最初的英语启蒙是从听力输入开始的,这种输入并非全部以词汇为单元,而往往是语块的形式来呈现的。

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这里先简单普及一下语块教学的概念:传统的英语教学把语言知识归纳为词汇和语法两大部分,认为语言就是把词汇按照语法规则进行组合;而语块教学(Lexical approach)则认为,语言的基本单元不仅仅是词汇,还包括大量具有语法特征的语块,比如:词组、习语、搭配词、固定表达等等。感兴趣的老师可以观看张敏老师这段视频讲解:

随着英语学习的逐渐深入,这些语法化的“词汇”帮助孩子潜移默化地建立了一定的语言“模式”,渐渐地被转移到新语境中,并能创造性地使用。最重要的是这个学习过程并没有超出了幼儿阶段的语言与认知水平。

下面一起来看一个幼儿园大班的英语课例Daily Routines,看看幼儿阶段的语法教学是怎样设计的:

【语言目标】

● Main vocabulary:

brush my hair, brush my teeth, get dressed,

get up, have breakfast, have lunch,

have dinner, take a shower, wash my face,

wash my hands

● Key language:

What do you do every day? I (have lunch).

Do you (wash your hands)?

What do you do at (home)?

I (have breakfast) at (home).

Do you (have lunch) at (school)?

Yes, I do. / No, I don't.

I don't (have dinner) at (school).

Part 1:目标词汇

第一节词汇课先通过简单的录音跟读有关日常活动的这些目标词汇,这个过程按照Listen-Point-Repeat的顺序依次完成。

Mimi: Look Dylan! I ... get up ... get dressed ... brush my teeth ... brush my hair ... and wash my hands! Repeat, Dylan!

Dylan: Yes, Mimi. I ... get up ... get dressed ... brush my teeth ... brush my hair ... and wash my hands!

Mimi: Very good, Dylan! Let's name the daily routines together!

Both: I get up ... get dressed ... brush my teeth ... brush my hair ... and wash my hands! Fantastic!

然后在活动用书上通过连线-描图-涂色的活动来巩固单词,同时锻炼孩子的精细运动技能。

Part 2:目标句型

第二节课学习句型的过程主要围绕歌曲按照Listen-Point-Sing的顺序逐渐展开:

1. 首先将上节课的单词闪卡贴在黑板上(或者直接用互动白板课件呈现),孩子在听歌曲的同时指向对应的闪卡。

What do you do everyday?

What do you do every day? (Shrug)

I get up. I get up. (Mime getting out of bed)

I get dressed. I get dressed. (Mime putting on a T-shirt)

And I play! (Jump up and down in place)

What do you do every day? (Shrug)

I wash my face. I wash my face. (Mime washing your face)

I brush my hair. I brush my hair. (Mime brushing your hair)

And I play! (Jump up and down in place)

What do you do every day? (Shrug)

I have breakfast. I have breakfast. (Mime eating cereal)

I brush my teeth. I brush my teeth. (Mime brushing your teeth)

And I play! (Jump up and down in place)

What do you do every day? (Shrug)

I wash my hands. I wash my hands. (Mime washing your hands)

I have lunch. I have lunch. (Mime cutting food and eating it)

And I play! (Jump up and down in place)

What do you do every day? (Shrug)

I have dinner. I have dinner. (Mime cutting food and eating it)

I have a shower. I have a shower. (Mime washing your arms)

And I play! (Jump up and down in place)

2. 第二遍播放歌曲的时候,带领孩子们一起做编排好的歌曲动作,帮助孩子理解歌词内容的同时训练粗大运动技能,这个过程可能会时间比较长,主要取决于孩子的掌握程度。

3. 在孩子们基本掌握后可以换卡拉OK版本重复上一步活动,检验孩子是否已经掌握。

4. 播放/暂停歌曲,让孩子们在自己的学生用书上完成听力任务。

5. 通过活动用书上的游戏训练巩固词汇,并尝试输出基本句型。

Part 3:故事教学

第三、四节课要把前两节课掌握的词汇和句式融入故事情境中,进一步强化语言知识,同时提供语言运用的场景。

1. 在第一遍播放视频的时候,可以先让孩子们考虑比较宽泛的问题:

What do Mimi and Dylan want Grandpa to do?

2. 引导孩子们讨论故事梗概后,通过播放/暂停分解故事情节,让孩子们根据学生用书上的故事卡回答细节:

Picture 1

●Are Mimi and Dylan excited to stay with Grandma and Grandpa?

●Is it time for breakfast now?

Picture 2

●Where are Grandma and Grandpa?

●Do Mimi and Dylan get dressed?

Picture 3

●Does Grandpa tell them a story?

●Is it time for breakfast now?

Picture 4

●Does Mimi like her breakfast?

●Does Grandpa tell them a story?

Picture 5

●What does Giant Joe wash?

●Is it time for dinner?

Picture 6

●Who is tired?

●Who isn't tired?

3. 当孩子对整个故事和其中的语言知识基本掌握后,先完成活动用书涂色锻炼精细运动技能,然后根据图片扮演Mimi或Dylan进行场景对话,不仅训练了语言,而且培养孩子的想象力。

4. 故事之后的歌曲学习与第二节课的原理类似,在训练粗大运动技能的同时巩固内化语言知识与运用。

Fee, fi, fum, fo (March in place)

I'm a giant. My name is Joe. (Point to self)

Fee, fi, fo, fum (March in place)

Now I'm hungry, yum, yum, yum! (Rub tummy)

I get up. I get dressed. (Mime getting out of bed and putting on a T-shirt)

I do this every day. (Point around you)

I wash my face. I wash my hands. (Mime washing face and hands)

And this is what I say: (Cup hands around mouth)

I brush my hair. I brush my teeth. (Mime brushing hair and teeth)

I do this every day. (Point around you)

I have breakfast. I have dinner. (Mime eating)

And this is what I say: (Cup hands around mouth)

5. 学完歌曲后,孩子们根据歌曲内容在学生用书上圈出Giant Joe每天做的事情。并把自己当成Giant Joe做简单问答:

-Do you wash your hands?

-Yes, I do. (No, I don't)

6. 最后完成活动用书游戏的过程中再次巩固并输出单词和句型。

Part 4:情境对话

语言输出训练通常设计在现实场景中,场景尽可能贴近孩子的家庭和校园生活。由于有了前面四节课的基础,所以第五节Speaking教起来其实并不难,关键是学以致用。

由于孩子们的生活基本是家校两个场景,所以在播放视频前先布置给孩子们需要思考的问题:

What does Lucy do (at home)?

1. 在播放视频的过程中可以依次展示相关词汇闪卡以加深印象

2. 使用学生用书讨论话题:

Are Lucy's daily routines the same or different to yours?

帮助孩子识别生活与学习场景下日常活动的异同。

3. 播放视频或音频,孩子们在图片上指出对应的日常活动。

4. 让孩子们参考学生用书示例,在活动用书上画出自己在家校的Daily routines,然后进行交流。

看完上面的课例,想必老师们都已经体会到了,虽然没有专门去讲解一般现在时的语法知识,但在每个课时的教学设计中,由浅入深,通过故事、歌曲、动作、场景对话、游戏活动等一系列环节,完成了语言知识的学习、操练、巩固和输出。在Speaking之后的Values, Content和Culture三个课时,则是把语言学习与情感态度、价值观、CLIL等多元目标相融合,进一步促进语法知识的巩固和运用,在此就不一一列举了。

虽然上面介绍的课程结构简单清晰,教学设计轻松活泼,但其语法知识完全覆盖了剑桥少儿英语考试的全部知识点,达到欧洲语言框架大纲CEFR Pre A1的水平。

回到文章开头那个话题,其实只要学习语言就离不开语法,幼儿英语也不例外,语法不存在该不该学、该不该教的问题,关键是怎么教。采用适合孩子们“上手”的方式,在潜移默化中习得,无疑是最有效的语法教学。

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