英语中动名词和现在分词的区别

subtitle 外语行天下 10-17 10:12 跟贴 30 条

动名词和现在分词都是由动词转换而来的,有一样的形式 V+ing,且都是非限定动词的一种,然而它们有不同的用法。

一、概念特征不同

1、动名词,指的是动词ing形式的一种,兼有动词和名词特征的非限定动词,在句子里面不能单独充当谓语,但能在句中充当主语,宾语,表语和定语,可以支配宾语,也可以被副词修饰,有时态和语态的变化。

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2、现在分词,又称-ing形式或现在进行时,是分词的一种,兼具动词和形容词特征的非限定动词,在句子里面不能单独充当谓语,但能在句中充当定语,表语,补语和状语,有时态和语态的变化。

二、功能不同

1、动名词能在句中充当主语,宾语,而现在分词不能,例如:

A、动名词作主语

Brushing your teeth is important.

刷牙很重要。

Hunting tigers is dangerous.

猎杀老虎是危险的。

Flying makes me nervous.

飞行使我紧张。

Smoking causes lung cancer.

吸烟会导致肺癌。

B、动名词作宾语

When will you give up smoking?

你什么时候戒烟?

She always puts off going to the dentist.

她总是推迟去看牙医。

I look forward to hearing from you soon.

我期待很快收到你的来信。

I am used to waiting for buses.

我习惯等公共汽车。

2、现在分词能在句中充当补语,状语,独立成分和独立主格,而动名词不能,例如:

A、现在分词作宾语补足语

I heard someone singing.

我听到有人在唱歌。

He saw his friend walking along the road.

他看见他的朋友沿路走。

I can smell something burning!

我闻到有东西烧焦了!

I watched the birds flying away.

我看着鸟儿飞走了。

B、现在分词作状语

Whistling to himself, he walked down the road.

他沿路走着吹口哨。

解析:此句等于 He whistled to himself as he walked down the road.

They went laughing out into the snow.

他们笑着去外面的雪里。

解析:此句等于 They laughed as they went out into the snow.

Dropping the gun, she put her hands in the air.

她放下枪,双手举向空中。

解析:此句等于 She dropped the gun and put her hands in the air.

Putting on his coat, he left the house.

他穿上大衣离开了家。

解析:此句等于 He put on his coat and left the house.

三、动名词与现在分词作表语和定语的区别

1、作表语的区别

A、动名词与主语指的是同一件事,此时系动词相当于“是”,通常把主语和表语的位置互换,语法和意思不变,例如:

My hobby is swimming.

我的爱好是游泳。

解析:可以改为:Swimming is my hobby.

One of his duties is attending meetings.

他的职责之一是参加会议。

The hardest thing about learning English is understanding the gerund.

学习英语最难的是理解动名词。

One of life's pleasures is having breakfast in bed.

生活的乐趣之一是在床上吃早餐。

解析:以上例句表语和主语可以互换位置。

B、现在分词作表语主要用以说明主语的性质,不能与主语互换位置,例如:

The story is interesting.

这个故事很有趣。

解析:不可以改为:Interesting is the story.

He was singing.

他在唱歌。

They have been walking.

他们一直在走。

We will be staying.

我们会留下来。

She would have been expecting me.

她会一直在等我的。

解析:以上例句表语和主语不能互换位置。

2作定语的区别

动名词修饰名词时主要表示该名词的用途,而现在分词修饰名词的性质状态或动作等试比较:

a swimming suit = a suit for swimming

游泳衣

解析:动名词 swimming 表明 suit 的用途。

a swimming boy = a boy who is swimming

一个正在游泳的男孩

解析:现在分词 swimming 表示被修饰名词 boy 的动作。

a sleeping car = a car which is used for sleeping

卧车(被用来睡觉的车厢)

解析:动名词 sleeping 表明 car 的用途。

a sleeping child = a child who is sleeping

一个正在睡觉的孩子

解析:现在分词 sleeping 表示被修饰名词 child 的动作。

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